Natural Sciences

Scientific Method:

Goal: To explain certain situations in the natural world with an unbiased manner


1) Observation

2) Hypothesis/Reasoning

3) Test hypothesis by doing an experiment

4) Analyze and interpret results/peer reviews, are there any exceptions/anomalies? if so, go back to stage 2, if not proceed to stage 5

5) Draw a conclusion/evaluation

6) Theory

7) Universal law

Sciences: Astronomy, Biology, Chemistry, Physics

Human Sciences: Philosophy, Psychology, Economics


For example, in chemistry, a theory is not “scientifically proven” unless there are exceptions that do not follow the rule. There are however limitations to the scientific method. Experiments can be faulty,  there is always a lack of controllability, measurability and repeatability making it difficult to verify results and, hence, claims.

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